During part of this time the leading Khazars professed Judaism. The name has been explained as having derived from Turkish qazmak "to wander," "nomadize? The Khazars, of Turkic stock, originally nomadic, reached the Volga-Caucasus region from farther east at some time not easily determinable.
They may have belonged to the empire of the Huns fifth century C. This name is said to be equivalent to Aq-Khazar, i. In the time of Procopius sixth century the region immediately north of the Caucasus was held by the Sabirs, who are referred to by Jordanes as one of the two great branches of the Huns Geticaed.
Mommsen, Cairo, In Theophanes, Chronographiaed. However, there are grounds for thinking that Ziebel stands for yabgua Turkish title — in the parallel Armenian account Moses of Kalankatuk, trans.
From C. It will be seen that the question of the precise racial affinities of the Khazars is not readily solved see also below. There appears to be insufficient evidence to warrant the conclusion of K. According to Theophanes ibid.
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On this, the Khazars, described as a "great nation … from the interior of Berzilia in the First Sarmatia," emerged and took possession of the territory as far as the Black Sea. The change of position was completed bywhen one of the brothers crossed the Danube and conquered present-day Bulgaria. Earlier than this, in C. Bonn,but hitherto there is no mention of the Khazars as such so far to the west. The advance of the Khazars to the Black Sea and Crimea area appears to be mentioned also in the Reply of Joseph see below, Khazar Correspondencewhere a great Khazar victory over the W-n-nt-r is referred to.
Minorsky Both names are best explained as corresponding to Onogundur, an old name in Greek sources for the Bulgars.Khazarmember of a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century ce established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia.
Although the origin of the term Khazar and the early history of the Khazar people are obscure, it is fairly certain that the Khazars were originally located in the northern Caucasus region and were part of the western Turkic empire in Turkistan. The Khazars were in contact with the Persians in the mid-6th century ceand they aided the Byzantine emperor Heraclius reigned — in his campaign against the Persians.
By the beginning of the 7th century, the Khazars had become independent of the Turkic empire to the east. But by the middle of that century, the expanding empire of the Arabs had penetrated as far northward as the northern Caucasusand from then on until the mid-8th century the Khazars engaged in a series of wars with the Arab empire. The Arabs initially forced the Khazars to abandon Derbentbut around the Khazars counterattacked, penetrating southward of the Caucasus into present-day GeorgiaArmeniaand Azerbaijan.
The Khazars and Arabs fought each other directly in Armenia in the s, and, though victory passed repeatedly from one side to the other, Arab counterattacks eventually compelled the Khazars to permanently withdraw north of the Caucasus.
Having been compelled to shift the centre of their empire northward, the Khazars after established their capital at Itil located near the mouth of the Volga River and accepted the Caucasus Mountains as their southern boundary. During the same period, however, they expanded westward. By the second half of the 8th century, their empire had reached the peak of its power—it extended along the northern shore of the Black Sea from the lower Volga and the Caspian Sea in the east to the Dnieper River in the west.
The Khazars controlled and exacted tribute from the Alani and other northern Caucasian peoples dwelling between the mountains and the Kuban River ; from the Magyars Hungarians inhabiting the area around the Donets River; from the Goths; and from the Greek colonies on the Crimean Peninsula. The Volga Bulgars and numerous Slavic tribes also recognized the Khazars as their overlords. Although basically Turkic, the Khazar state bore little resemblance to the other Turkic empires of central Eurasia.
It was headed by a secluded supreme ruler of semireligious character called a khagan —who wielded little real power—and by tribal chieftains, each known as a beg.
The Khazars seem to have been more inclined to a sedentary way of life, building towns and fortresses, tilling the soil, and planting gardens and vineyards. Trade and the collection of tribute were major sources of income. But the most striking characteristic of the Khazars was the apparent adoption of Judaism by the khagan and the greater part of the ruling class in about The circumstances of the conversion remain obscure, the depth of their adoption of Judaism difficult to assess; but the fact itself is undisputed and unparalleled in central Eurasian history.
A few scholars have even asserted that the Judaized Khazars were the remote ancestors of many eastern European and Russian Jews. Whatever the case may be, religious tolerance was practiced in the Khazar empire, and paganism continued to flourish among the population.
The prominence and influence of the Khazar state was reflected in its close relations with the Byzantine emperors: Justinian II and Constantine V each had a Khazar wife. The main source of revenue for the empire stemmed from commerce and particularly from Khazar control of the east-west trade route that linked the Far East with Byzantium and the north-south route linking the Arab empire with northern Slavic lands.
Income that was derived from duties on goods passing through Khazar territory, in addition to tribute paid by subordinate tribes, maintained the wealth and the strength of the empire throughout the 9th century. But by the 10th century the empire, faced with the growing might of the Pechenegs to their north and west and of the Russians around Kievsuffered a decline.
When Svyatoslav, the ruler of Kiev, launched a campaign against the KhazarsKhazar power was crushed. Although the Khazars continued to be mentioned in historical documents as late as the 12th century, by their political role in the lands north of the Black Sea had greatly diminished.
Despite the relatively high level of Khazar civilization and the wealth of data about the Khazars that is preserved in Byzantine and Arab sources, not a single line of the Khazar language has survived.Jump to navigation. It is a public, non-governmental organization, whose founders, members and participants are united by a common idea. This idea is the preservation and restoration of national traditions, customs and, in general, spiritual heritage.
Those topics are lead according to the basis of a society's self-organization, as well as sustainable development of public relations. Our NGO's activities are built upon the principle according to which protection and careful attitude to nature are moral issues, which are interrelated with protection of cultural and spiritual heritage in general.
Khazer is an active participant of the process of education for sustainable development in Armenia. Our NGO is a member of commission on sustainable development, which contributes to developing an integrated education approach, providing a forum for all stakeholders and preparing training materials for trainers.
We develop, publish and disseminate booklets on different environmental challenges facing Armenia. We produced films on climate change, biodiversity, etc. Khazer has also youth group, which is actively involved in information dissemination activities among students and school-children. We regularly organize environmental events and celebrations of the international environmental days, such as the International Day of Ozone Layer Protection, Biodiversity, Earth Day, etc.
Contact Information:. Saryan St. Email :. Khazer NGO. Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia.With a population of 1,  it is the sixth most populous city in Russia. Inthe city became the capital of the Khanate of Kazan. InKazan was captured by Ivan the Terrible and became part of Russia. The city was largely destroyed during Pugachev's Rebellionbut was later rebuilt during the reign of Catherine the Great. In the following centuries, Kazan grew to become a major industrial, cultural and religious center in Russia.
Kazan is renowned for its vibrant mix of Oriental and Russian cultures. The origin of the name Kazan is uncertain. The most accepted legends derive it from the Bulgar and also modern Tatar word qazanwhich means 'boiler' or 'cauldron'. Most often appeal to the version of the boiling boiler: the sorcerer advised the Bulgars to build a city where, without any fire, a boiler dug into the ground would boil water.
What Does "Chazer" Mean?
As a result, a similar place was found on the shore of Lake Kaban. One legend claims that the city was named after the river Kazanka, which was named after the son of a Bulgar governor who dropped a copper cauldron into it. According to the official version adopted today, the city was founded more than 1, years ago. The estimated date of the urban settlement on the site of Kazan is — years. The reason for this dating is found during excavations in the Kazan Kremlin Czech coin, dated by the Board of St.
Wenceslaus presumably, coinage — years and the earliest Czech coin, the remains of masonry and wooden city fence, handicrafts and utensils Hungarian type lining, women's beads, etc. According to official statements, experts from 20 cities of Russia and 22 countries of the world were involved in the study of findings related to the age of Kazan. Another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin.
Some Tatars also went to Lithuania, brought by Vytautas the great. Kazan became the center of the Principality, which was dependent on The Golden Horde. The growth of the city was also promoted by the successful geographical location at the intersection of major trade routes connecting East and West. During the same period, the minting of currency began with the indication of the place of minting—"Bulgar al-Jadid", that is, a New Bulgar.
The city became the capital of the Kazan Khanate.Here is the dictionary definition of MYTH:.
A fiction or half-truth, especially one that forms part of an ideology. An unfounded or false notion. A person or thing having only an imaginary or unverifiable existence. Idle fancy, fable, fiction. Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews or Judaism.
Discrimination against Jews. This was written before the full extent of the holocaust was known, but that does not alter the fact that the large majority of surviving Jews in the world is of Eastern European—and thus perhaps mainly of Khazar—origin. If so, this would mean that their ancestors came not from the Jordan but from the Volga, not from Canaan but from the Caucasus, once believed to be the cradle of the Aryan race; and that genetically they are more closely related to the Hun, Uigur and Magyar tribes than to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
Should this turn out to be the case, then the term "anti-Semitism" would become void of meaning, based on a misapprehension shared by both the killers and their victims. The story of the Khazar Empire, as it slowly emerges from the past, begins to look like the most cruel hoax which history has ever perpetrated.
Arthur Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribep. The Khazars adopted the religion of the Samaritans or fake Jews around A. By that time, this religion became know as Judaism. Khazaria was reborn on May 14, Of course the eminent author Mr. When he Satan speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
John New Khazaria would not exist today except for this imaginary Holocaust which served to win them sympathy throughout the world. GenesisLatin Vulgate Version.
Iraqi camp families struggle to make a living
Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw behind his back a ram, amongst the briers, sticking fast by the horns, which he took and offered for a holocaust Lat. No Jews. It is not rocket science to figure that out The real Jews disappeared from history when their task of bringing the Messiah into the world was fulfilled. There was no Holocaust of the Khazars either because Satan does not cast out Satan or get rid of his own people.
Joshua the Messiah said:. And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan? Mark According to the World Almanac and Book of Factsthere were about 15, "Jews" in the world in According to the same source, there were just about the same number in In various Islamic and non-Islamic traditions, Khidr is described as a messenger, prophet, walislave  or angel  who guards the sea, teaches secret knowledge  and aids those in distress.
Therefore, the meaning of the name has traditionally been taken to be "the Green One" or "the Verdant One". Some contemporary scholars have disagreed with this assessment;  however some others point to a possible reference to the Mesopotamian figure Utnapishtim from the Epic of Gilgamesh through the Arabization of his nickname, "Hasisatra".
What Does "Chazer" Mean?
The Quran states that they meet at the junction of the two seas i. And how canst thou have patience about things about which thy understanding is not complete? After they board a ship, the Servant of God damages the vessel.
Forgetting his oath, Moses says, "Have you made a hole in it to drown its inmates? Certainly you have done a grievous thing. Next, the Servant of God kills a young man. Moses again cries out in astonishment and dismay, and again the Servant reminds Moses of his warning, and Moses promises that he will not violate his oath again, and that if he does he will excuse himself from the Servant's presence.
They then proceed to a town where they are denied hospitality. This time, instead of harming anyone or anything, the Servant of God restores a decrepit wall in the village. Yet again Moses is amazed and violates his oath for the third and last time, asking why the Servant did not at least exact "some recompense for it.
The Servant of God replies, "This shall be separation between me and you; now I will inform you of the significance of that with which you could not have patience. Many acts which seem to be evilmalicious or somber, actually are merciful. The boat was damaged to prevent its owners from falling into the hands of a king who seized every boat by force. And as for the boy, his parents were believers and we feared lest he should make disobedience and ingratitude to come upon them.
God will replace the child with one better in purity, affection and obedience. As for the restored wall, the Servant explained that underneath the wall was a treasure belonging to two helpless orphans whose father was a righteous man. As God's envoy, the Servant restored the wall, showing God's kindness by rewarding the piety of the orphans' father, and so that when the wall becomes weak again and collapses, the orphans will be older and stronger and will take the treasure that belongs to them.
Ibn Hajar declared the claim of the first fair and that of the second sound in Fath al-Bari ed.Here are some of them:. Someone who cannot see the needs of others is compared to a pig, which is so wrapped up in its own needs that it sees nothing beyond his trough of slop. One classic reason goes back to the biblical verses telling us which mammals are kosher: those who both have split hooves and chew their cud.
Now the pig is unique in that it has split hooves but does not chew its cud. A basic component of Torah study is returning to a text, studying it again and again until it has been well understood. In fact, in Talmudic days it was common for people to chazer the same subject times. Chazer Chassidus : In chassidic culture, especially before many chassidic texts were committed to writing, the act of chazeren chassidus, repeating chassidic discourses, was instrumental in spreading the teachings of the chassidic masters.
Until this very day, it is common for someone to chazer a discourse in the closing moments of Shabbatat weddings and bar mitzvahsand whenever else chassidim gather for inspiration. Chazer Bochur : I heard this term from an elderly Jew in Hungary, who was reminiscing about his pre-Holocaust childhood, when he had studied in one of the great prewar yeshivahs in the Carpathian mountains. Let us chazer what we have just learned.
Suppose you were listening to your chazer bochur chazer baal peh, and you knew that he left his dorm room a chazer shtal full of chazerei. You may think of him as a chazer fissel for his act of chazershaft, since in your mind, acting like a chazer is simply chazer treif. Did you get that? Rather, the sages say that the pig will one day return from its unkosher state.
When Messiah comes, the pig, the most unkosher among all animals, will be transformed into a kosher animal! Then there is also "chazerai" Thank you very much for this delightful and comprehensive article.
Well researched and well written. Delightful and informative and satisfying, like a good meal. I adore pigs. Given the opportunity, they're very clean. However, they can have mites on their skin, which makes them itch, which is why they roll in mud. They're intelligent and affectionate and most of them love football! I know they're a non kosher animal, and I wouldn't eat them, but they get far too much bad press.
I agree with you absolutely. After all G-d made this lovely creature would he want us to harm it? Good point - the thought of eating any meat repulses me and killing an animal makes me feel less in touch with God. You have left no hope, only faith in the coming of Mashiah!
I can not believe that the leaders of our days are also exposed to this "disease. Now, I will always be sad I haven't had such a good laugh upon recollection of my childhood 65 plus years ago.
To see the word chazer shtal again was so My mom used to point out to her friends my room and say, "ah richtikeh chazer shtal. Yiddish is indeed a priceless language. And rightly so. I have heard the word 'transform' and changed, fulfilled, morphed, etc used in the Church to make the Torah mutable and arrive at their desired outcome. An outcome that is opposite of the purpose and meaning presented by God through Moses. And nowhere does the TaNaK make space for such a thought that the pig is 'transformed' in the Messianic age into a clean animal for human consumption.
Quite the opposite!